Cell Biology Mcqs


The process of introducing DNA into cells is called ____________________

A) blotting B) conjugation
C) transfection D) conduction
Answer & Explanation Answer: C) transfection

Explanation: The process of introducing DNA into cells without the aid of any cloning vector is termed as transfection. Calcium phosphate or DEAE-dextran can be used for the adherence of foreign DNA to the surface of target cells.

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Viral-mediated gene transfer is called _______________

A) conjugation B) transduction
C) transformation D) transversion
Answer & Explanation Answer: B) transduction

Explanation: Viral-mediated gene transfer is called transduction. In this process a non-replicating virus is allowed to infect a cell population which leads to the expression of gene of interest transiently.

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Bacterial artificial chromosomes are the __________________ of bacterial cells.

A) Polymerase enzyme B) Proteases
C) F-factors D) Exonucleases
Answer & Explanation Answer: C) F-factors

Explanation: Bacterial artificial chromosomes are cloning vectors that accept up to 500 kb of DNA. These are specialized plasmids (F-factors) of the bacterial cells that contain bacterial origin of replication.

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Which of the following can be used to clone DNA sequence of size larger than 25 kb?

A) Yeast artificial chromosome B) SV40
C) Plasmid D) Bacteriophage
Answer & Explanation Answer: A) Yeast artificial chromosome

Explanation: For cloning DNA sequences of a size larger than 20 to 25 kb, the conventional vectors such as plasmids and bacteriophages can not be used. For the cloning of large DNA fragments, the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) may be used.

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The endonuclease HaeIII recognizes ______________________ sequence.

A) mono-nucleotide B) bi-nucleotide
C) tri-nucleotide D) tetra-nucleotide
Answer & Explanation Answer: C) tri-nucleotide

Explanation: The endonuclease HaeIII and Sau3A, are tetranucleotide sequences used in the construction of genomic DNA libraries. After digestion of the nucleotides, the fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis.

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cDNA libraries are produced from ______________________

A) ribonucleic acids B) messenger RNAs
C) transfer RNAs D) ribosomal RNAs
Answer & Explanation Answer: B) messenger RNAs

Explanation: Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries are produced from the messenger RNA molecules and represent the type of genes residing in a particular type of cell. The other type of DNA libraries is the genomic library.

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DNA libraries are collection of ______________________

A) ribonucleic acid B) cloned DNA fragments
C) bacteriophages D) viral particles
Answer & Explanation Answer: B) cloned DNA fragments

Explanation: DNA libraries are a collection of cloned DNA fragments; there are two types of DNA libraries namely genomic libraries and complementary-DNA libraries. The libraries are instrumental for genetic researchers.

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When was the nucleotide sequence of a viral genome first elucidated?

A) 1977 B) 1988
C) 1999 D) 2002
Answer & Explanation Answer: A) 1977

Explanation: The first nucleotide sequence of an entire viral genome X174 was sequenced in vitro in the year 1977. The nucleotide sequence contained 5375 nucleotides. Frederick Sanger was the first person to sequence a polypeptide.

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